IPV4 and IPV6

Posted By : Ram Kumar | 09-Mar-2020

 

Internet Protocol (IP): -

Protocol is a set of policies and law by using which two machine may additionally talk to each different beneath the network. the internet protocol is liable for addressing hosts and for routing datagram’s (packets) from a source host to a destination host across one or more IP networks. for this purpose, the net protocol defines the format of packets and provides an addressing machine that has features:-Identifying hosts and Presenting a logical location services.

The Internet protocol version 4 (IPv4) is a protocol for use on packet-switched hyperlink layer networks (e.g. Ethernet). IPv4 affords an addressing functionality of approximately 4.3 billion addresses. the internet protocol model 6 (IPv6) is more superior and has better functions as compared to IPv4.

IPv4 addresses 32 bit binary addresses (divided into four octets) used by the internet protocol (OSI layer 3) for handing over packet to a device located in identical or faraway community. MAC address (hardware address) is a globally specific address which represents the network card and can’t be changed. IPv4 deal with refers to a logical deal with, that's a configurable address used to perceive which network this host belongs to and additionally a network specific host variety. In other phrases, an IPv4 includes 2 parts: - Network parts and Host parts


 

Note:- Wide variety of usable IPv4 addresses = (2n)-2. in which "n" is the range of bits in host part.


 

There are 5 IPv4 addressing classes and unique addresses.

CLASS – A: -

"Class A" IPv4 addresses are for extremely large networks. The left most bit of the left maximum octet of a "CLASS A" community is reserved as "zero". the first octet of a "CLASS A" IPv4 address is used to perceive the network and the three ultimate octets are used to discover the host in that network (Network.Host.Host.Host).

The 32 bits of “Class A” IPv4 address can be represented as 0xxxxxxx.xxxxxxx.xxxxxxx.xxxxxx.

"Class A" IPv4 address, contains the value between 0-127 (0.X.X.X to 127.X.X.X).

CLASS B: -

IPv4 addresses of this class is used in small scal networks. Left maximum bits of the left most octet of a "CLASS B" network is reserved as "10". The first two octets of a " CLASS B " IPv4 cope is used to find the network and the final 2 octets are used to identify the host in that specific network (Network.Nommunity.Host.Host).

"Class B" IPv4 address, contains the value between 128-191 (128.X.X.X to 191.X.X.X).

CLASS C: -

"Class C" IPv4 addresses are commonly used for small and mid-size businesses. The first three bits of the "Class C" network is reserved as "110". The first 3 octets of a "CLASS C" IPv4 address is used to perceive the Network and the last octets is used to discover the host in that network (Network. Network. Network. Host).

It contains the value between 192 to 223 (192.X.X.X to 223.X.X.X). Networks containing the IP from 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.0 are reserved for private use.

CLASS D: -

This IPv4 addresses are known as multicast IPv4 addresses. Multicasting is a way to transfer packets from one device to many other devices, without any pointless packet duplication. In multicasting technique , one packet is sent from a source and is replicated in multiple end users .

Four left maximum bits of the left maximum octet of a "CLASS D" network is reserved as "1110". The rest 28 bits are used to identify the group of computers the multicast message is intended for.

CLASS D" IPv4 address, hold the value between 224 to 239 (224.x.x.x to 239.x.x.x).

CLASS E: -

This class IPv4 address is used for experimental function only and you cannot assign those IPv4 addresses on your devices.

4 left maximum bits of the left most octet of a "Class E" network is reserved as "1111". The minimum feasible value for the left most octet in binaries is 11110000 (decimal equal is 240) and the most viable value for the leftmost octet is 11111111 (decimal equivalent is 255). Consequently, for the "Class E" IPv4 value lies between 240-255 (240.x.x.x to 255.x.x.x)


 

IPV6


 

The IPv4 addresses are 32-bit binary addresses which is divided into 4-octets (bytes). This 32-bit huge range is difficult to symbolize in binary format and therefore IPv4 addresses are represented in decimals, separated by dot. An instance of IPv4 address is 192.168.100.10. But, IPv6 addresses are so much large than IPv4 addresses and even representing them in decimals is hard, thats why the IPv6 addresses are represented in Hexadecimal numbers, separated by a colon.

  • Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the newest version of the Internet Protocol (IP).

  • IPv6 was also developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).

  • IPv6 is the successor to Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) works on the Network Layer (Layer-3).

  • The size of an IPv6 address is 128 bits.

  • Total addres spaces are 2128 or approximately 3.4×1038 addresses. That is (340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456, which is approximately 340 undecillion, or 340 billion billion billion billion, addresses).


 

Address shape: -

  • An IPv6 address is a combination of 128 bits divided into eight 16-bits blocks.

  • Each of them converted into 4-digit Hexadecimal numbers separated by colon symbol.

  • The following exapmle is 128 bit IPv6 address represented in binary format and divided into eight 16-bits blocks: -

0010000000000001 000000000000000

Internet Protocol (IP): -

A protocol is a set of policies and laws that govern the interaction between two machines over a network. The internet protocol is liable for addressing hosts and for routing datagrams (packets) from a source host to a destination host across one or more IP networks. For this purpose, the net protocol defines the format of packets and provides an addressing machine that has features Identifying hosts and Presenting logical location services.

The Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) is a protocol used for packet-switched hyperlink layer networks (e.g. Ethernet). IPv4 affords an addressing functionality of approximately 4.3 billion addresses. The internet protocol model 6 (IPv6) is superior and has better functions as compared to IPv4.

IPv4 addresses 32-bit binary addresses (divided into four octets) used by the internet protocol (OSI layer 3) for handing over the packet to a device located in an identical or faraway community. MAC address (hardware address) is a globally specific address that represents the network card and can’t be changed. IPv4 deal with refers to a logical deal with, that's a configurable address used to perceive which network this host belongs to and additionally a network-specific host variety. In other words, an IPv4 includes 2 parts: - Network parts and Host parts

 

 Note:- Wide variety of usable IPv4 addresses = (2n)-2. in which "n" is the range of bits in the host part.

 

 

There are 5 IPv4 addressing classes and unique addresses.

CLASS – A: -

"Class A" IPv4 addresses are for extremely large networks. The left most bit of the left maximum octet of a "CLASS A" community is reserved as "zero". The first octet of a "CLASS A" IPv4 address is used to perceive the network and the three ultimate octets are used to discover the host in that network (Network.Host.Host.Host).

The 32 bits of “Class A” IPv4 address can be represented as 0xxxxxxx.xxxxxxx.xxxxxxx.xxxxxx.

"Class A" IPv4 address, contains the value between 0-127 (0.X.X.X to 127.X.X.X).

CLASS B: -

IPv4 addresses of this class are used in small scale networks. Left maximum bits of the leftmost octet of a "CLASS B" network is reserved as "10". The first two octets of a " CLASS B " IPv4 cope is used to find the network and the final 2 octets are used to identify the host in that specific network (Network.Community.Host.Host).

"Class B" IPv4 address, contains the value between 128-191 (128.X.X.X to 191.X.X.X).

CLASS C: -

"Class C" IPv4 addresses are commonly used for small and mid-size businesses. The first three bits of the "Class C" network is reserved as "110". The first 3 octets of a "CLASS C" IPv4 address is used to perceive the Network and the last octets is used to discover the host in that network (Network. Network. Network. Host).

It contains the values between 192 to 223 (192.X.X.X to 223.X.X.X). Networks containing the IP from 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.0 are reserved for private use.

CLASS D: -

This IPv4 addresses are known as multicast IPv4 addresses. Multicasting is a way to transfer packets from one device to many other devices, without any pointless packet duplication. In the multicasting technique , one packet is sent from a source and is replicated in multiple end-users .

Four left maximum bits of the left maximum octet of a "CLASS D" network is reserved as "1110". The rest 28 bits are used to identify the group of computers the multicast message is intended for.

CLASS D" IPv4 address, hold the value between 224 to 239 (224.x.x.x to 239.x.x.x).

CLASS E: -

This class IPv4 address is used for experimental function only and you cannot assign those IPv4 addresses on your devices.

4 left maximum bits of the leftmost octet of a "Class E" network is reserved as "1111". The minimum feasible value for the leftmost octet in binaries is 11110000 (decimal equal is 240) and the most viable value for the leftmost octet is 11111111 (decimal equivalent is 255). Consequently, for the "Class E" IPv4 value lies between 240-255 (240.x.x.x to 255.x.x.x)

 

 

IPV6

 

 

The IPv4 addresses are 32-bit binary addresses which is divided into 4-octets (bytes). This 32-bit huge range is difficult to symbolize in binary format and therefore IPv4 addresses are represented in decimals, separated by dot. An instance of IPv4 address is 192.168.100.10. But, IPv6 addresses are larger than IPv4 addresses and even representing them in decimals is hard. That's why the IPv6 addresses are represented in Hexadecimal numbers, separated by a colon.

  • Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is the newest version of the Internet Protocol (IP).
  • IPv6 was also developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).
  • IPv6 is the successor to Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) and works on the Network Layer (Layer-3).
  • The size of an IPv6 address is 128 bits.
  • Total addres spaces are 2128 or approximately 3.4×1038 addresses. That is (340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456, which is approximately 340 undecillion, or 340 billion billion billion billion, addresses).

 

 

Address shape: -

  • An IPv6 address is a combination of 128 bits divided into eight 16-bits blocks.
  • Each of them converted into 4-digit Hexadecimal numbers separated by colon symbol.
  • The following exapmle is 128 bit IPv6 address represented in binary format and divided into eight 16-bits blocks: -

0010000000000001 000000000000000

0011001000110100

 

1101111111100001

0000000001100011

 

0000000000000000

0000000000000000

 

1111111011111011

 

  • Each block is then converted in the form of Hexadecimal and separated by ‘:’ symbol
  • Ex.- 2001 : 0000 : 3238 : DFE1 : 0063 : 0000 : 0000 : FEFB

 

IPv6 provides some rules to shorten the address.

These rules are: -

  • Rule.1: - Discard leading Zero(es):-

In 5th Block, 0063, the leading two 0s can be omitted, such as:-

2001: 0000: 3238: DFE1: 63: 0000: 0000: FEFB

  • Rule:2:- If two or more blocks contain consecutive zeroes, omit them all and replace with double colon sign ::, such as (6th and 7th block):-

2001: 0000 : 3238 : DFE1 : 63 : : FEFB

  • Rule:3:- Consecutive blocks of zeroes can be replaced only once by :: so if there are still blocks of zeroes in the address they can be shrunk down to single zero, such as (2nd block):

2001: 0 : 3238 : DFE1 : 63 : : FEFB

  • Rule:4 The double colon :: can be used only once to represent an IPv6 address.

 

 Example: - The IPv6 address

1A23:120B:0000:0000:1234:0000:0000:4D

can be represented by

1A23 : 120B : : 1234 : 0 : 0 : 004D

or

1A23 : 120B : 0 : 0 : 124 : : 4D

but not by

1A23 : 120B : : 1234 : : 4D

 

 

The double colon :: represents the number of 0s required to create eight 16-bit hexadecimal numbers.

 

 

 

 

Conclusion :-

 

 

 

 We are an ERP Development company with expertise in developing customized software solutions for our clients. Our custom development services enable businesses to automate, plan, collaborate, and execute their operations methodically. We develop web and mobile applications and backend servers along with management applications for your ERP.

 

 

  
   
   

 

  • Each block is then converted in the form of Hexadecimal and separated by ‘:’ symbol

  • Ex.- 2001 : 0000 : 3238 : DFE1 : 0063 : 0000 : 0000 : FEFB

 

IPv6 provides some rules to shorten the address.

These rules are: -

  • Rule.1: - Discard leading Zero(es):-

In 5th Block , 0063, the leading two 0s can be omitted, such as :-

2001: 0000: 3238: DFE1: 63: 0000: 0000: FEFB

  • Rule:2:- If two of more blocks contains consecutive zeroes, omit them all and replace with double colon sign ::, such as (6th and 7th block):-

2001: 0000 : 3238 : DFE1 : 63 : : FEFB

  • Rule:3:- Consecutive blocks of zeroes can be replaced only once by :: so if there are still blocks of zeroes in the address they can be shrink down to single zero, such as (2nd block):

2001: 0 : 3238 : DFE1 : 63 : : FEFB

  • Rule:4 The double colon :: can be used only once to represent an IPv6 address.


 


 


 


 

Example: - The IPv6 address

1A23:120B:0000:0000:1234:0000:0000:4D

can be represented by

1A23 : 120B : : 1234 : 0 : 0 : 004D

or

1A23 : 120B : 0 : 0 : 124 : : 4D

but not by

1A23 : 120B : : 1234 : : 4D


 

The double colon :: represents the number of 0s required to create eight 16-bit hexadecimal numbers.


 


 

Conclusion :-


 

 

 We are an ERP Development company with expertise in developing customized software solutions for our clients. Our custom development services enable businesses to automate, plan, collaborate, and execute their operations methodically. We develop web and mobile applications and backend servers along with management applications for your ERP.


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